List and Summary of the Databases Collected in the Digital Museum

Below is a summary of the databases in the collection. The database category -- [Nativism/Shinto], [History/Archeology], [Literature/Folklore], [Archives, Picture Scrolls, etc.], [Translation] -- is listed at the end of each description.

Articles in Translation 双方向論文翻訳

This database website compiles translations into Japanese of research articles on Shintō and Japanese religions written in foreign languages (primarily English), as well as translations of Japanese research on those topics into English and Korean. Stored in PDF format, the aim of these translations is to help acquaint site users with the research being done on Shintō and Japanese religions abroad or by foreign scholars. The Center for Promotion of Excellence in Research and Education launched this project in 2006 and three or four new articles are added every year to the database. [Translation]

Basic Terms of Shinto 神道基本用語集

This glossary explains basic terms of Shintō in English. It intially appeared as a print edition in 1997. The text subsequently was made available over the internet, and in 2009 it was added to the Kokugakuin University Digital Museum project. The explanations provided here are relatively concise compared to the more comprehensive entries in Encyclopedia of Shintō. This glossary contains 326 terms, with some entries that are also illustrated (70 illustrations in total). [Translation]

Database of Materials on Shintō and Shrine History (Classical Period) 神道・神社史料データベース(古代)

This database comprises entries on approximately 450 shrines from the classical period that detail their locations, summaries of the information recorded about them in Engishiki (927), and their rank. The shrines selected for the database include those which had taisha (grand shrines) appended to their names in the Engishiki list as well as those entities who deities were described as being ranked (shin'i or shinkai) 4th class or higher at the time the Rikkokushi (Six national histories) was completed. For reference, the database also incorporates a graph showing the record of promotions in rank for the deities at the shrines covered. While this may be restricted to conditions as they were in the era covered by the Rikkokushi, the graph nonetheless will enable the user to get a sense of the changes in the rank of the deity venerated at each of the shrines. [Nativism/Shintō]

Database of Materials on Shintō and Shrine History (Contemporary) 神道・神社史料データベース(現代)

This database comprises entries on some 1,500 shrines. Among the contemporary institutions are included shrines that in the Meiji-period ranking system were placed at kanpeisha (imperial shrines) or kokuheisha (national shrines) level or below (including bekkaku kanpeisha) and fusha (municipal shrines) or kensha (prefectural shrine) level or above. Current nomenclature is used for shrine names, and shrine locations have been made viewable via Google Maps. The URLs are also included for the websites of those shrines that have one. Entries also include notes where applicable indicating the popular or common name of a shrine, and information such as whether a shrine was included among those listed in Engishiki (927) or was one of the Nijūnisha (“the Twenty-Two Shrines" patronized by the imperial court in the Heian period). Using the database in conjunction with the corresponding database for the classical period will also permit the user to learn about trends and developments in the history of shrines. [Nativism/Shintō]

Database of Miyaji Naokazu's Photographs 宮地直一博士写真資料

Miyaji Nokazu (1886–1949) was the first scholar of modern Shintō history to use the methods of positivist historical science to examining the history of shrines and Shintō. He also played a major role in Shintō and shrine administration before World War II as a Home Ministry bureaucrat. The Miyaji archive comprises some 2,800 photographs dived up among 53 albums and photo mounts and organized mainly into the categories of shrines and ancient texts. While most of the photographs he took were of textual materials, his subjects also included the scenery at and around shrines, religious rites and festivals, and shrine treasures. [Nativism/Shintō]

Database of Photographs from Shibata Jōe 柴田常恵写真資料

Shibata Jōe (1877-1954) was a specialist in the preservation and administration of archeological and cultural properties who was active from the late Meiji through mid-Shōwa periods. Through the auspices of Ōba Iwao and Higuchi Kiyoyuki, Shibata's research materials became part of the holdings of Kokugakuin University after his death. His photographs comprise 5,817 prints spread out over 43 albums and arranged by prefecture. The most common subjects are archaeological relics and sites, Buddhist statuary, and shrine and temple architecture. They include a number of cultural treasures that are no longer extant today. The database contains 5,512 items, of which 5,475 are available for public inspection. [History/Archeology]

Database of Photographs from the Sugiyama Shigetsugu Archive 杉山林継博士収蔵資料

This database comprises 989 photographs of the ruins of sites where mountain pass rites were held along the ancient Tōsandō route, along with ones related to the Chūō Expressway and other subjects, that are part of the Sugiyama Shigetsugu archive held at Kokugakuin University. Sugiyama's excavations at the Misaka and Iriyama passes on the eastern and western borders of the old Shinano province clearly revealed the dimensions of mountain pass worship and also from an archeological perspective threw light on the existence of the Tōsandō, which was hitherto known only through textual sources. Sugiyama oversaw work at 4 of the 9 excavations that were undertaken an urgent basis in 1964 when the eventual route of the Chūō Expressway was being finalized. The materials in this particular archive are largely from the three sites of Ishikawa, Narahara, and the famed Utsugi Mukōhara, known for its concentration of square-ditched tombs (hōkei-shū kōbo). [History/Archeology]

Database of Shibata Jōe's Field Notes 柴田常恵野帳資料

Shibata Jōe (1877-1954) was a specialist in the preservation and administration of archeological and cultural properties who was active from the late Meiji through mid-Shōwa periods. Through the auspices of Ōba Iwao and Higuchi Kiyoyuki, Shibata's research materials became part of the holdings of Kokugakuin University after his death. Shibata's field notes span 83 volumes, dating from Meiji 35 (1902) to Shōwa 20 (1945). In Ōba's assessment, “The pages are filled with Shibata's distinctively meticulous characters and sketches, and include much material about items that are no longer extant today"; as this suggests, the notes were deemed to have considerable scholarly value and so were scanned and made available for public viewing as PDF files. [History/Archeology]

Dictionary of Ritual Language in Man'yōshū 万葉集神事語辞典

Created under the editorial supervision of Tatsumi Masaaki and Shirosaki Yōko, this dictionary glosses the vocabulary related to kami rites that appears in Man'yōshū. Modeled on the print edition that was published in 2008, this internet-based version incorporates revisions and went online in 2009. The dictionary contains entries for 843 terms, written by a wide variety of contributors. [Literature/Folklore]

Documents from Ōba Iwao 大場磐雄博士資料

Upon the death of Ōba Iwao (1899–1975), a proponent of Shintō archeology, his vast collection of research materials was donated to Kokugakuin University. The collection includes photos, rubbings, postcards, and sketches mounted on backing papers that were bagged and placed in some 180 storage boxes. Ōba Iwao organized the materials into 10 categories: (1) Paleolithic age, (2) Jōmon period, (3) Yayoi period, (4) Kofun period,( 5) Historic times, (6) Religious rites, (7) Folklore, (8) Foreign countries, (9) Twelve signs of Chinese zodiac, and (10) Others. The items are valuable both as resources in and of themselves, as well as for the light they shine on Ōba's research process. [History/Archeology]

Encyclopedia of Shinto

This encyclopedia explains terms related to Shintō in English. The current online Encyclopedia has its origins in the project to translate into English Shintō jiten (Kōbundō, 1994). This project—the results of which were first released to the public in 2005—came about as part of the Kokugakuin University 21st Century Centers of Excellence Program, “Establishment of a National Learning Institute for the Dissemination of Research on Shinto and Japanese Culture." The data from that project was then transferred to the Kokugakuin University Digital Museum when it came online in 2009, and it has been amended and expanded on an ongoing basis. Currently, the EoS contains 1,480 entries, with audio files appended to each giving the pronunciation of the term. Some also include supplemental materials to aid in understanding, including 223 images, 155 videos, and 33 charts. [Translation]

Encyclopedia of Shinto in Korea 신도사전

This is a Korean translation of the English-language Encyclopedia of Shintō. Currently, the translation comprises 441 entries, including translations of the introductions to each chapter as well as Chapter 4, "Jinja (Shrines)," and Chapter 8, “Schools, Groups, and Personalities." [Translation]

Index of Higuchi Kiyoyuki's Works 樋口清之博士著作目録

Professor Higuchi Kiyoyuki (1909–1997) made major contributions to the fields of archeology and museum studies at Kokugakuin University. Higuchi set his sights on studying archeology while still in middle school (under the old imperial system), a field he pursued after matriculating at Kokugakuin. Among his legacies at the university are his donation of archeological materials he collected in his native Nara Prefecture and the work he did to create an archeological exhibit space here. Higuchi's research interests were varied, and went beyond archeology to also span the fields of Japanese history, folklore studies, and cultural anthropology. This database contains entries on articles and works penned by Higuchi between 1925 and 2015, and is based on Higuchi Kiyoyuki-hakase ryakureki fu narabi chosaku bunken mokuroku [A short biography and index of texts written by Professor Higuchi Kiyoyuki] (1979) and the article “Higuchi Kiyoyuki-hakase chojutu mokuroku" [An index of works by Professor Higuchi Kiyoyuki] in Kokugakuin daigaku hakubutuskan gaku kiyō [Research bulletin of the Kokugakuin University Museum] (1997). [History/Archeology]

Index of the Holtom Collection ホルトム文庫目録

This database indexes 350 volumes in both Japanese and western languages that were in the personal collection of the American scholar of Japanese religions Daniel Clarence Holtom (1884–1962) and are now held by the Kokugakuin University Institute of Japanese Culture and Classics. The books were also examined for the presence of Holtom's signature and any annotations he may have made, and the database contains nearly 500 photographs showing these two sorts of inscriptions. Assistance for creating this database came from Scientific Research Expenses Subsidy for Junior Researchers (B), Topic Number 18720018 (Project Leader: Hirafuji Kikuko). [Archives, Picture Scrolls, etc.]

Jōmon Period Earthenware from the Museum's Collection 博物館収蔵縄文土器

This database features the 339 Jōmon earthenware specimens from the Kokugakuin University Museum's holdings that were selected for inclusion in Kōkogaku shiryō zuroku II [An illustrated record of archaeological materials, vol. 2], compiled and published by the Museum in 1998. The database is not meant to be a comprehensive archive of the Museum's Jōmon holdings; for example, a substantial number of items from Aomori Prefecture added to the Museum's collection since 1998 are not represented. [History/Archeology]

Kokugaku Personalities Database 国学関連人物データベース

A database of persons connected to Kokugaku (Nativism or National Learning) in the early modern and modern periods. The database has entries for almost 12,000 persons. They include individuals regarded as kokugakusha (“nativists")—a wide-ranging group encompassing Shintō scholars, historians, scholars of Japanese poetry, yūsokuka (individuals well-versed in yūsoku, or ancient court and military practices), and jurists—who passed away between the Keichō era (1596–1615) and Meiji 35 (1902). Also included are the individuals listed as wagakusha (“scholars of Japanese learning") in Wagakusha sōran [A general survey of wagakusha] edited and published in 1990 by the Kokugakuin University Institute for Japanese Culture and Classics. The individuals in this category run from people who died in the latter half of the Keichō era to ones who were born in Meiji 1 (1868), and had been engaged in scholarship in such areas as theology, tanka studies, history, and yūsoku (including scholars of Chinese classics and masters of haiku and comic poetry). [Nativism/Shintō]

Kokugakuin University Library's Digital Library 図書館デジタルライブラリー

The Digital Library comprises digitized items from the Kokugakuin University Library's rare materials and special collections, with a focus mainly on classic texts in Japanese literature, history, and Shintō studies. As of 2014, the Digital Library contained some 340 works. The digitization effort began in 1998 and has continued with new additions every year; the digitized images open to public viewing through this database are presented in both medium- and high-definition formats. [Nativism/Shintō], [History/Archeology], [Literature/Folklore], [Archives, Picture Scrolls, etc.]

Museum Expedition Reports 博物館発掘調査報告書

The Kokugakuin University Museum from 1985 to 2011 dispatched a series of expeditions to archeological sites at 15 locations around Japan, beginning in 1985 with the Oda site in Iwate Prefecture and ending with the survey undertaken 2009–2011 at Mt. Kotobiku in Shimane Prefecture. This database brings together in PDF format copies of the reports on the results of these expeditions as they were first published, primarily in the Kōkogaku shiryōkan kiyō [Bulletin of the Archeological Archive]. [History/Archeology]

Orikuchi Shinobu Kabuki Postcards 折口信夫博士歌舞伎絵葉書資料

Orikuchi Shinobu (1887–1953) left behind a superb body of work as a scholar of Japanese literature, ethnographer, and poet. He was also an aficionado of kabuki who wrote a noted work on dramatic genre titled In Praise of Kabuki. The Orikuchi Shinobu Memorial Institute of Archeology at Kokugakuin University has in its holdings 2,547 picture postcards and bromide photographs focusing mainly on kabuki collected by Orikuchi that show the state of Japanese traditional performing arts and media from the Meiji to early Shōwa periods. This database contains 5,094 images comprising digitized copies of the 2,547 postcards and bromides along with images of their reverse sides. [Literature/Folklore]

Photographs from Ōba Iwao 大場磐雄博士写真資料

Among the materials donated to Kokugakuin University by Shintō archeologist Ōba Iwao (1899–1975) are 5,131 photographs, primarily on glass plates. Excluding those that had deteriorated excessively or were of a personal sort left 4,881 that were digitalized and made available for the public. In addition to his investigations as an archeologist at historical sites, Ōba also carried out studies as a staff member in the Historical Investigation Section, Bureau of Shrines, Ministry of Home Affairs, and also on commission for the Jingu (i.e., Ise Shrine) History Museum, on Shintō shrines (including Ise itself) and votive objects around the country. The collection includes important photos he took during his investigations at such historically important ruins as the Kisami-Senda and Toro sites in Shizuoka and of shrines and votive objects found nationwide. [History/Archeology]

Photographs in the Harada Toshiaki Maibunsha Archive at the Shintō Institute, Kōgakkan University 皇學館大学神道研究所所蔵原田敏明毎文社文庫写真資料

The Maibunsha Archive comprises documents and texts from scholar of religions Harada Toshiaki (1893–1983). These materials were donated to the Shintō Institute at his alma mater Kōgakkan University after his passing. The Shintō Institute has already created the Harada Toshiaki Maibunsha Archive Photographic Index as a record of the materials in text form; created as part of a joint research effort, this database adds digitized copies of the photographic materials in Harada's collection created by Kokugakuin University's Institute for Japanese Culture and Classics under its project “Basic Research on Restoring Damaged Images for Active Use and Treatment as Source Materials." Some 3,648 items in the collection have tentatively been categorized as having been taken before the Second World War, of which 3,555 have been made available to the public through this database. [Nativism/Shintō]

Ritual Relic Excavation Site Database 祭祀遺物出土遺跡データベース

This database contains entries about what Ōba Iwao categorized as “ritual sites" and “ritual relics," as well as a judicious selection of related materials. The information in this database is based primarily on the reports of archeological digs published by local governments around the country; Kita-Musashi kodai bunka kenkyūkai [Kita-Musashi society for the study of ancient culture], ed., Kofun jikdai no saishi [Rituals of the Kofun period] (1993) vols. 1-3; National Museum of Japanese History, ed., Bulletin of the National Museum of Japanese History (1985), vol. 7, and Japanese Archeological Association, ed., Archaeologica Japonica: Annual Report of the Japanese Archeological Association, nos. 54 (2001) through 59 (2006) (published 2003–2008). [History/Archeology]

Sect Shintō Documents 教派神道関連資料データベース

This database enables users to view images of the original pages, along with searchable text, from documents related to Sect Shintō and Shintō-derived new religions. Among other items, it includes documents from Sano Tsunehiko (1834–1906), founder of the Shinrikyō sect, which is headquartered in Kokura-minami Ward, Kita-kyūshū City, Fukushima Prefecture. New items are added on a running basis to the database, which was created as a project of the Institute for Japanese Culture and Classics under the Organization for the Advancement of Research and Development. [Nativism/Shintō]

Shibata Jōe Tile and Stone Rubbings Database 柴田常恵瓦拓本資料

Shibata Jōe (1877-1954) was a specialist in the preservation and administration of archeological and cultural properties who was active from the late Meiji through mid-Shōwa periods. Following his death, the stone rubbings he had collected over the course of his life became part of the holdings at Kokugakuin University. The documents were organized and indexed in Shibata Jōe takuhon shiryō mokuroku [Catalogue of the Shibata Jōe stone rubbing collection], published in 2011 by the Curatorial Research Center, Organization for the Advancement of Research and Development, Kokugakuin University. The tiles and stones themselves were from around Japan (ranging from Iwate Prefecture in the north to Okinawa in the south) and the Korean Peninsula, along with tiles of various sorts from around China. The rubbings that Shibata made are noted both for their quality and their quantity. The database comprises 2,591 digitized copies of Shibata's rubbings. [History/Archeology]

Shrine and Temple Picture Postcard Database 社寺等絵葉書資料

This database contains digitized images of picture postcards from two collections held by the Kokugakuin University Organization for the Advancement of Research and Development, “Shintō shiryōkan shozō ehagaki shiryō” [Picture postcards in the Shintō Archive] and “Miyaji Naokazu kyūzō ehagaki shiryō” [Picture postcards from the Miyaji Naokazu collection]. These images are gradually being made available for public inspection after permissions to do so are obtained. The collection includes shrine-related picture postcards that depict such subjects as the buildings and grounds of shrines both in Japan and overseas, treasures and materials from shrine storehouses, and scenes related to festivals and rites; it also contains postcards commemorating noted sites and special subjects such as particular temples and shrines, famous historic sites, folk customs, and subjects related to the imperial household. [Nativism/Shintō]

Works by Ōba Iwao 大場磐雄博士著作目録

In addition to studying archeology under Torii Ryūzō, Ōba Iwao (1899–1975) also learned about folklore studies (minzokugaku) from Orikuchi Shinobu, undertook investigations at shrines nationwide under the direction of Miyaji Naokazu at the Bureau of Shrines, Ministry of Home Affairs, and was involved with editing Shintō-shi (Shintō shrines gazetteer). In short, he was deeply versed in archeology, folklore studies, and textual history, and his articles and written works cover a wide variety of topics. This database follows the Ōba Iwao Abridged Chronological Record and Publications Index prepared by Ōba himself, and includes numerous articles and publications not included in his text mentioned above. This database comprises articles and books from 1918 to 2010. [History/Archeology]

Nijūnisha(The 22 Shrines) Image Collection 二十二社写真データベース

This database presents images related to shrines (views of shrines including buildings and spaces used for festivals, as well as images of shrine festivals themselves)with the goal of making people around the world more aware of Japanese culture and religious culture. Presenting alongside the images basic information about shrines in both Japanese and English will educate people globally and further disseminate information about shrines and Shintō. This database was created using some of the photographic and video materials collected for the “Material Archive-based Education and Video Content Creation” program that is a part of the “Collaborative Project to Help Museums Train Personnel with Deepened Knowledge of Japanese Culture and Religious Culture”. [Translation]