國學院大學
國學院大學デジタルミュージアム

Map and list of the Nijūnisha

Information about the shrines can be accessed either by clicking on the shrine in the list below or on the corresponding number matched to its location on the map.
Jingū Iwashimizu Hachimangū Kamowakeikazuchi Jinja Kamomioya Jinja Matsunō Taisha Hirano Jinja Fushimi Inari Taisha Kasuga Taisha Ōharano Jinja Ōmiwa Jinja Isonokami Jingū Ōyamoto Jinja Hirose Taisha Tatsuta Taisha Sumiyoshi Taisha Hiyoshi Taisha Umenomiya Taisha Yoshida Jinja Hirota Jinja Yasaka Jinja Kitano Tenmangū Niu Kawakami Jinja(Middle) Niu Kawakami Jinja(Upper) Niu Kawakami Jinja(Lower) Kifune Jinja

  1. Jingū
  2. Iwashimizu Hachimangū
  3. Kamowakeikazuchi Jinja
  4. Kamomioya Jinja
  5. Matsunō Taisha
  6. Hirano Jinja
  7. Fushimi Inari Taisha
  8. Kasuga Taisha
  9. Ōharano Jinja
  10. Ōmiwa Jinja
  11. Isonokami Jingū
  12. Ōyamato Jinja
  13. Hirose Taisha
  14. Tatsuta Taisha
  15. Sumiyoshi Taisha
  16. Hiyoshi Taisha
  17. Umenomiya Taisha
  18. Yoshida Jinja
  19. Hirota Jinja
  20. Yasaka Jinja
  21. Kitano Tenmangū
  22. Niu Kawakami Jinja(Middle)
  23. Niu Kawakami Jinja(Upper)
  24. Niu Kawakami Jinja(Lower)
  25. Kifune Jinja


History of the Nijūnisha

 The system of twenty-two shrines (二十二社)represents the shrines especially revered by the imperial court from the end of the ninth century (Heian Period, 794–1185) through the middle of the fifteenth century (Muromachi Period 1336–1573). At these shrines [priests] prayed for an abundant grain harvest twice a year, for rain, a stop to flooding, protection from natural disasters, the wellbeing of the nation and court during extraordinary times, and received offerings (heihaku) from the imperial court. Initially the number of shrines selected was sixteen, but gradually increased to twenty-two and as a result is called the system of twenty-two shrines.
 The twenty-two shrines are: Ise (Kōtai Jingū/ inner and Toyouke Daijingū / Outer), Iwashimizu (Iwashimizu Hachimangū), Kamo (Kamo Wake Ikazuchi Jinja, Kamomioya Jinja), Matsunoo (Matsunoo Taisha ), Hirano (Hirano Jinja ), Inari (Fushimi inari Taisha), Kasuga (Kasuga Taisha), Ōharano (Ōharano Jinja), Ōmiwa (Ōmiwa Jinja), Isonokami (Isonokami Jingū), Ōyamato (Ōyamato Jinja), Hirose (Hirose Jinja), Tatsuta (Tatsuta Taisha), Sumiyoshi (Sumiyoshi Taisha), Hiyoshi (Hiyoshi Taisha), Umenomiya (Umenomiya Taisha), Yoshida (Yoshida Jinja), Hirota (Hirota Jinja), Gion (Yasaka Jinja), Kitano (Kitano Tenmangu), Niu Kawakami (Niu Kawakami Jinja, lower, middle, and upper shrines), Kifune (Kifune Jinja).
 From the ninth through the twelfth centuries (Heian Period), the national system of rites and regulations changed, gradually a new system emerged that matched the faith of the Emperor and aristocrats themselves. At the time the system of twenty-two shrines took form, it can be said it was a particular characteristic of the Heian Court in present day Kyoto . The twenty-two shrines enshrine the imperial lineage's ancestral god (Sosen shin 祖先神), Ubusunakami (産土神) the protector of people, and the gods of influential families (e.g., the FUJIWARA clan recognized as the maternal lineage of the Emperor, and regents and advisers). Included are older shrines which have been revered since the eighth century as places where the imperial family would pray for agricultural fecundity, rains, and for deluges to stop. The organization of the system of twenty-two shrines thus reflects the faith of the people at the time of their founding.