Encyclopedia of Shinto

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詳細表示 (Complete Article)

カテゴリー1 1. General Introduction
カテゴリー2 History of Shrines and Shinto
Text When considering the history of Shintō in Japan's early modern period, one needs to understand the stance the bakufu adopted toward shrines and the numerous new trends that produced. The Tokugawa bakufu established its mastery over temples and shrines while adopting a basically respectful attitude toward court ritual and associated rites. It gradually reinstituted court observances that had fallen into disuse since the Ōnin War (1467-77), including the Daijōsa, the Niinamesai, and the practice of dispatching imperial envoys with tribute to shrines (hōbei). Furthermore, little by little it instituted a system of control over priestly lineages (shake), whereby priests (shinshoku) were placed under the supervision chiefly of the Yoshida and Shirakawa houses. Observances of famous shrines, such as the Hōjō-e of the Iwashimizu Hachiman Shrine, were restored, and shrines devoted to new objects of worship also appeared, such as the Tōshōgū shrines devoted to the deified Tokugawa Ieyasu. There were also some instances of domains promoting shrine rites and worship, while the Shintō funerals (shinsōsai) that were performed in certain regions served as precedents for the Shintō funeral movement that emerged around the end of the Edo period.

The Establishment of the Early Modern System
After the final defeat of its major enemies in Osaka, the Tokugawa bakufu issued two legal codes, the Code for Military Households (Buke shohatto; 1615) and Code for the Imperial Houses (Kinchū narabini kuge shohatto; 1615), that established the framework of the system it used to control the court and the daimyō. The third shogun, Tokugawa Iemitsu, strengthened the prohibition on Christianity in the Kan'ei era (1624-44) and proclaimed the closure of the country after the Shimabara Rebellion (seventh month of 1639), establishing a policy that would be maintained for over two centuries. Around the same time, the bakufu established the general framework of its internal administrative structure and created the Council of Elders (rōju), the Junior Council (wakatoshiyori), and the Magistrate of Temples and Shrines (jisha bugyō). It also appointed a Magistrate for Religious Inquisition (shūmon aratameyaku bugyō) and tightened up its regulations on religious sects.
The issuance of so-called "vermilion-seal" land grant deeds renewed with each shogunal accession stabilized temple and shrine lands. The bakufu also laid out its basic policy toward shrines and priestly lineages with the issuance in the seventh month of 1665 the five-article Shosha negi kannushi hatto (see below).
     The bakufu established an allowance of 10,000 koku (later raised to 30,000) for the imperial house and imposed various restrictions through legal devices such as Laws for the Imperial Court and Nobles (Kinchū narabi ni kuge shohatto). Nonetheless, the imperial house maintained a dignified existence, court rituals and observances that dated back to the ritsuryō system were carried out, and official ranks, titles, and rituals such as festival ceremonies were maintained. There were also many shrines and priests who received "imperial transmission certificates" from the official Jingikan houses of the Shirakawa and the Yoshida—ossified though they may have been—or from other noble houses, thus giving them direct or indirect connections to the imperial house.
While the regulations of religion and the imperial house may have been locked in place, political stability in the provinces depended on improving the welfare of the common people. Front areas (shatō) were constructed for countryside shrines, and the hereditary priestly succession system was stabilized. This gave the priesthood the leisure to pursue learning and improved their position in local society. This would prove to be one factor in the rise of National Learning (kokugaku) later in early modern times.

Court Rites
The ritsuryō system had already collapsed by the medieval period, but ceremonies for the dispatch of envoys for imperial rites at various shrines were conducted at the Jingikan until the Ōnin War (1467-1477). The Jingikan itself was left in ruins after the war and a temporary facility appears to have been erected on its former site. The jingihaku (see Hakke Shintō) Tadatomi-ō and Yoshida Kanetomo weighed restoring the Jingikan but their plans were not realized, and with the construction of Nijō Castle by Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu the site, too, was lost. The Yoshida house built their shrine Hasshinden on the Kyoto hill Kaguraoka in 1590, and a ceremony was held at the shrine's "supreme ritual site" (saijō-sho) on the sixteenth day of the ninth month of 1609 for dispatching an imperial tribute envoy to Ise. Subsequently, while land at the site of the Jingikan's mansion in Uchino was also briefly utilized for ceremonies, it was the "proxy Jingikan" (Jingikandai) on Kaguraoka that received prolonged use. In the ninth month of 1647—the same year that the annual dispatch of tribute envoys to the Tōshōgū was instituted—the practice of dispatching tribute envoys to Ise (Ise reiheishi) was reinstated after having been interrupted since the wars of the late fifteenth century. Various other shrine rites that had long gone unobserved were also revived thereafter, including the annual festival of Iwashimizu Hōjō-e in 1679 and the Kamo Festival in 1694. The Daijōsai, or Great Thanksgiving Festival of Enthronment, was reinstated in abbreviated form during the reign of Emperor Higashiyama (r. 1685-1709) in 1687; it had last been performed 220 years earlier in 1466 during the reign of Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado (r. 1464-1500). The Daijōsai was not performed during the reign of Higashiyama's successor Nakamikado (r. 1709-35), but after 1738 and the reign of Emperor Sakuramachi (r. 1735-47) the ritual was observed regularly. The Niinamesai, or Festival of First Fruits Tasting, was also reinstated during Emperor Sakuramachi's reign, in 1740. Thus, numerous court rites that had gone unobserved since the Ōnin War were reinstated, though in some cases it was impossible to restore the rites perfectly to their original forms due to financial problems and the effects of the long hiatus.
     Like the Daijōsai, the Shikinen Sengū (the "Regular Removal of the Grand Shrines of Ise" conducted in twenty-year intervals) also went unperformed for a long period—about 120 years, with the last one at the Outer Shrine having been held in 1434 and at the Inner Shrine in 1462. Fundraising efforts by the Buddhist nuns Keikōin Seijun and Keikōin Shūyō made it possible to observe the Regular Removal for the Outer and Inner shrines in 1563 and 1585, respectively. The Regular Removal for both shrines took place again twenty-four years later in 1609, and thereafter the ritual was observed every twenty years for thirteen times in succession until 1869 early in the Meiji period. The Regular Removal was thus reinstituted in the mid-sixteenth century on the basis of fundraising efforts led by the nuns of Keikōin, but a growing tide of anti-Buddhist feeling (see shinbutsu bunri) led priests at the Grand Shrine—where Buddhism was a taboo—to consider it inappropriate for Buddhists to lead the fundraising for the ceremony. As a result, the shrine's own superintendent priest took over fundraising for the Regular Removal beginning with the observance of 1669. The bakufu also assigned the Yamada Magistrate (Yamada Bugyō) early in the 1600s to the task of overseeing the shrine rebuilding. The position was frequently left vacant before finally becoming firmly established in 1624.

Religious Institutions under the Bakuhan System
The Magistrate of Temples and Shrines (Jisha Bugyō) within the bakufu was responsible for administering all Buddhist temples and Shintō shrines. There were four magistrates appointed for a fixed period who rotated in office on a monthly schedule, each with his own cadre of subordinates. While there may have been three or five magistrates from time to time, the magistrate itself remained in place through the end of the Edo Period. The institution was established in 1635 during the rule of Tokugawa Iemitsu. It was regarded as one of the three crucial magistrates, alongside the Machi Bugyō (Town Magistrate) and Kanjō Bugyō (Magistrate of the Treasury),. Moreover, it ranked above the other two, which were under the authority of the Council of Elders (rōju) as opposed to the Magistrate of Temples and Shrines, which was under the shogun's direct control. The magistrates were chosen from among the fudai daimyō who held the office of sōshaban (Master of Shogunal Ceremony). After their tenure, many were appointed to such offices as Kyoto Inspector (shoshidai) or Osaka Castle Master, or even promoted to the Council of Elders.
     Since the magistrate of temples and shrines was such an important shogunal office, it had a broad bailiwick that included administering shogunal land grants to shrines and temples as well as oversight of go and shōgi masters, renga poets, and other matters. A domainal Magistrate of Temples and Shrines dealt with matters that arose within a given daimyō's domain, but the shogunal Magistrate would conduct an investigation when it came to suits involving affairs between domains or issues regarding lands held by virtue of shogunal land grant or by individuals with the rank of hatamoto. As the system matured, the shogunal magistrate would also respond to inquiries from the domain magistrates and provide them with guidance such as pointing out relevant precedents.
     In 1636, the bakufu revised the Code for Military Households, adding an article prohibiting Christianity and instructing the domains to carry out "inquisition into sectarian membership" (shūmon aratame) to assure that local parishioners were not Christians. The bakufu appointed religious inquisitors to the domains in 1664 and directed them to be thorough in their investigations. At first, the temple registration (terauke) system did not grant temples and shrines the task and authority to certify that someone was not a Christian, but it gradually became institutionalized and stricter to the extent that in some places people were required to secure the local temple's seal of certification every month. Some shrine priests had also maintained their own Buddhist temples since the medieval period, and in the registration system's early years many priests received their certifications from friendly temples. However, as the registration system—that is, the temple parish system (danka seido)—was consolidated and became more firmly established, more and more Buddhist priests tried to use the system to enhance their authority. As a result, shrine priests in some areas began to seek a way to get out from under the system to conduct Shintō funerals and to get sectarian confirmation from a shrine rather than a temple. Many areas saw a movement arise among priests to get themselves removed from the parish system's rolls based on the opening clause of the Shosha negi kannushi hatto (1665) enjoining shrine priests to "devote oneself to learning the way of kami rites (jingi)." After the Bunka era (1804–1818), provincial priests began petitioning for this exemption in groups.

Shrine Administration Under the Bakuhan System
The period of fourth shogun Ietsuna's rule (1661-1673) was significant for shrines. The most important development of this time was the system established by the Shosha negi kannushi hatto (Laws for Priests at Shrines, 1665). The text in full is as follows:

Item: Negi and kannushi priests are to dedicate themselves to learning the way of kami rites. They must know the object of worship revered in their shrine (i.e., know the identity of the deity worshipped there) and carry out its customary rites faithfully. If anyone is found negligent in these duties, he will be expelled from the priesthood.
Item: Priestly lineages with ranks that have been granted certificates of imperial transmission up to now shall continue to be recognized as valid.
Item: Shrine personnel without rank shall wear white vestments. Vestments of other color require a license from the Yoshida house.
Item: Shrine lands shall never be sold.
     Addendum: Neither shall they be mortgaged.
Item: A shrine incurring minor damage shall promptly be repaired.
     Addendum: Priests shall be diligent in keeping shrines clean.
The preceding items shall be strictly observed. Anyone failing to do so shall be subject to large or small punishment as befits the case.

     This law was transmitted to all shrines, and it was also sent to domainal authorities, affixed with the seals of the Council of Elders. It was also transmitted to the Yoshida house (recognized by the bakufu as superintendents of the Jingikan), and it was retransmitted to them with their shogunal land grants under the title Jinja no jōmoku in 1685, 1719, 1747, 1762, 1788, 1839, and 1855.
     Interesting events were also occurring in the domains. In the Mito domain a 15-volume register of temples and shrines was compiled in 1663, with two volumes devoted to shrines. Three years later Tokugawa Mitsukuni abolished 997 newer temples while having renowned temples repaired. He also carried out a separation of Buddhism and Shintō, using a policy of one shrine per village and abolishing "immoral and deviant shrines." In 1664, Aizu domain compiled a 24-volume register of temples and shrine, four of which were devoted to shrines. In 1666, the daimyō Hoshina Masayuki took the lead in abolishing new Buddhist temples that had been constructed in the preceding twenty years, and he prohibited their reconstruction. In the ninth month of 1666, the daimyō of Okayama, Ikeda Mitsumasa, ordered the destruction of "immoral shrines" (inshi), then constructed "collective shrines" (yorimiya) to which a grant of 5,000 koku each was bestowed. Also called ujinomiya ("clan shrines"), these shrines were built to bring the domain into conformity with the one shrine per village policy. By the following year, 601 shrines remained within the domain, while 10,527 shrines had been destroyed. Mitsumasa abolished the temple registration system after creating this one shrine per village framework, allowing shrine priests to issue confirmations of religious affiliation and encouraging shrine priests to conduct Shintō funerals. As a result, by 1669, some 97.5 percent of the people in the domain had adopted Shintō funerals. The impact of these policies also spread to neighboring domains, but after Hoshina Masayuki died in 1672 and Mitsumasa and Mitsukuni went into retirement, the temple registration system was again imposed at the bakufu's behest.
     However, such shrines as the Kitsuki Shrines (see Izumo Taisha), Sata-sha, and Miho-sha in the Matsue domain (in present-day Shimane Prefecture) and Kibitsu-sha in Bitchū (in present-day Okayama Prefecture) retained this program of "separating the buddhas and the kami." Meanwhile, the streamlining continued in many regions since having a large number of Buddhist temples and kami shrines represented a heavy economic burden to domainal finances. For example, the Mori domain began its program of closing immoral shrines in the Genroku era (1688-1703), but evidence that such activities continued can be seen until around the Meiji Restoration. In sum, while powerful domains such as Okayama briefly abolished the temple registration system, when it was reimposed in the period 1688-1704 it actually emerged in stronger form due to the bakufu's policy of protecting Buddhist temples. For example, under the influence of Tachibana Mitsuyoshi, Takahashi Sakon Mitsuyori—a priest (kannushi) at of the shrine Iyahiko Jinja in Echigo (in present-day Niigata  Prefecture)—abolished his shrine's jingūji (a Buddhist temple on the grounds of a shrine), removed Buddhist images from the shrine, and in their place enshrined divine emblems (reiji) of the priestly lineage. He called the shrine a reijiden (hall of divine emblems), gave it the new name of Jingishū ("sect of the kami"), and conducted Shintō funerals there. However, the Shingon monks of the jingūji filed suit and the judgment handed down in 1697 went against him. As a result, by bakufu order the shrine was reconfirmed in 1699 as a Ryōbu Shintō shrine in conformance with the institutions of temple registration and religious sectarian inquisition. Later, Ono Kenkō of the Hinomisaki Shrine of Izumo likewise attempted to introduce Shintō funerals, but he also was defeated in a resulting lawsuit. In this way, the bakufu clarified its distinction between Ryōbu (Buddhistic) and Yuiitsu (kami-exclusive) shrines.
     The bakufu's policy of upholding the temple registration system strictly through the Magistrate of Temples and Shrines changed little after this time. In principle, the bakufu would grant permission for Shintō funerals only if the priest had a Yoshida license and if the temple where the deceased had been registered agreed. The bakufu later also allowed funerals for the priest himself and his first son without prior consultation with the relevant temple, a practice that is believed to have been allowed starting from the Meiwa era (1764-72). In the Tempo era (1830-44) Tokugawa Nariaki of the Mito domain engaged a thorough shake-up of Buddhist temples, while Iwashita Masahira carried out the wholesale destruction of temples in the Satsuma domain near the end of the Edo period and introduced Shintō funerals.
     Despite such distinctive events, it remained difficult for shrine priests in the provinces to switch to Shintō funerals en masse. Under the leadership of Oka Kumaomi, shrine priests in the Tsuwano domain (in present-day Shimane Prefecture) were released from the temple registration requirement in 1847, while permission to conduct Shintō funerals was given the following year to 152 priests in Owari domain (in present-day Aichi Prefecture).

Control of Shrine Priests by the Yoshida and Shirakawa Houses
Since the end of the medieval period the Yoshida house had distributed ritual licenses and ranks to provincial shrine priests through their right to issue "imperial certificates of transmission" (shissō). They attempted to use the power of the shogunate to monopolize this function, but other noble houses, especially the Shirakawa, opposed the Yoshida, and the issue came up time and again. Within the Yoshida house, officials (kunigakariyaku) were assigned to be in charge of the various provinces. Through liaison officers (furegashira) who consolidated the priests in their respective provinces, they handled applications for permission to wear silk vestments (kariginu), to perform Shintō funerals, to recognize lineage succession, and for shrine licenses (sōgen senji). They also performed various other services such as providing assistance to provincial priests traveling to the capital. The kunigakariyaku would also occasionally tour the villages under their jurisdiction and provide priests visiting Kyoto with practical instruction in shrine ritual. The Yoshida opened an office in Edo in 1791, installing an official responsible for handling issues related to the bakufu and transmitting applications from the eastern part of the country. A office of theological affairs was also opened at this institution. By the time of the Tenpo reforms of 1842, some forty people were employed in the Edo office and an office had also been established in Osaka.
     In contrast, the Shirakawa house does not seem to have been concerned with strengthening its hold over provincial priests early in the Edo period. Instead, as a noble lineage close to the imperial house, they were more occupied with instruction regarding rites of imperial succession and maintaining ties with the Jingikan priests at the twenty-two shrines (nijūnisha) and elsewhere. But the Shirakawa competed with the Yoshida for control of shrine priests in the Yamato region by touring the villages there and gradually began working to expand its clout. This trend became especially pronounced starting with the Bunka era (1804–1818), when the house began compiling registers of members. The register indicates that many of the licenses the Shirakawa issued were granted to carpenters, and a related document shows the house was involved in a considerable range of activities aside from that of overseeing shrine priests, such as canvassing for donations for Inari Shrines and performing calligraphy for display plaques. Besides the Yoshida and Shirakawa, the Tsuchimikado house also issued clerical licenses to priests, and there are examples of large shrines in some regions issuing their own clerical licenses to the priests under their jurisdiction.
     Turning to how provincial shrines were organized, we find there were considerable differences depending on the region and point in time when we look. For example, the organizational method used changed from a period in which they were under the direction of a liaison officer (furegashira), to one in which priests were organized into associations with a manager (kimoiri) selected on a rotating basis to handle the group's operations. The activities involved might include forming study groups for self-directed study of Shintō writings, or raising funds for the mutual support of lawsuits involving members. Most of these groupings were composed of relatively smaller shrines, but provincial great shrines with large numbers of priests and priestly lineages (shake) might be home to numerous such asssociations, depending on regional history and character. The Grand Shrines of Ise (Ise Jingū), the Kashima Shrine, Katori Shrine, and others each had around 100 priestly lineages, and from generation to generation the allocation of shrine grant lands (shuinchi) and division of labor in festivals was supervised by these internal associations.

The Creation and Distribution of Tōshōgū
One distinctive feature of shrines in this period is the construction and politically motivated placement around the country of Tōshōgū—shrines dedicated to the deified spirit of shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu. This activity was considerably different in character from, say, the establishment of Kumano, Hachiman, or Shinmei (Ise) shrines through the work of traveling priests and priestesses (oshi and miko), or the spread of Gozu Tennō shrines that came with epidemics.
When Ieyasu died in 1616, he was buried at Kunōzan. A mausoleum was constructed in front of the grave and the priest Bonshun performed rites in accordance with the liturgy of Yuiitsu Shintō. Furthermore, when a mausoleum was built at Nikkō and Ieyasu's coffin moved there, the remains were interred in accordance with the liturgy of Sannō Ichijitsu Shintō (see Sannō Shintō) as performed by the Tendai monk Tenkai. The imperial court conferred to these mausolea the divine title (shingō) of "Tōshō Daigongen" and the court rank of Senior First. The court dispatched an imperial envoy (chokushi) when the Ieyasu's spirit was officially enshrined in 1617. While earlier precedents for the apotheosis of a ruler existed such as the enshrinement of Toyotomi Hideyoshi as Toyokuni Myōjin, after the construction of Tōshōgū numerous domains saw shrine-mausoleums constructed at the gravesites of the domains' founders. The trend toward enshrining human beings as kami picked up pace, and various distinguished people and teachers were enshrined even while still living.
— Sugiyama Shigetsugu