國學院大學
國學院大學デジタルミュージアム

Encyclopedia of Shinto

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1 A Kami by any other Name It is widely known that Shinto is counted among the world's polytheistic religions, but each Shinto kami also bears multiple names, making their stories harder to untangle. Originally, in the Kojiki a
2 A Shinto Patriarch's Confrontation with Saint Nikolai Kasatkin The promotion of the organization of Shinto into sects (kyōha Shinto) during the Meiji period was in part a measure taken against the rising influence of Christianity. With the ongoing influx of missi
3 Business Shrines Many Japanese corporations and businesses have shrines on their property or within their buildings. Little attention was paid to these facilities until the Jinja Shinpōsha (the publishing house for th
4 Daily Aspects (higara) and Directional Taboos (hōi) The phrase "Today, even the day's aspect is good," (本日はお日柄も良く) is a familiar expression heard at Japanese weddings. This statement refers to the fact that the day is one of "taian," or "great peace an
5 Daoist Elements in Shinto Shinto has been greatly influenced by both Confucianism and Buddhism. It is also not without Christian influence. However, despite the fact that Daoist influence on Shinto has been far greater than th
6 Do Shrines Issue Any "Inauspicious" Fortunes? Omikuji is a popular form of divination in which paper fortunes can be drawn from a box at Shinto shrines. Adults and children alike hope for a lucky fortune, and hardly anyone ever draws an unlucky o
7 Female Founders and Shamanesses Among the founders of the many Shinto-derived New Religions (Shintōkei shinshūkyō), there have been a number who claim to have been chosen as vehicles to be "ridden" by kami (kamigakari). Among the fe
8 How to Become a Shinto Priest The majority of Shinto priests are affiliated with the Association of Shinto Shrines (jinja honchō), meaning the most common way to formally become a Shinto priest, is to complete a training course es
9 Jichinsai (Ground-purification Rites): Religious Ritual or Secular Custom? From individual family homes to large-scale factories, new construction usually commences only after traditional Shinto ground-purification rites (jichinsai) have been performed. Construction itself i
10 Kami and Healing Today, accounting for illness and healing is the singular role of modern medicine. However, there are still cases in which humans are not necessarily satisfied by medical explanations alone. When conf
11 Miko and their Dance (Urayasu no mai) In almost all Shinto festivals and ceremonies, there is usually the opportunity to see four women (known as miko) dressed in white kimono, red pantaloons (hakama) and a special cassock (chihaya) with
12 Paying Respects at a Shinto Shrine Of course nobody goes around scolding others for not abiding by it, but there is a provisional "standard" manner of paying respects at Shinto shrines. As such, it is advisable for shrine-goers to fami
13 Rates of Women in the Shinto Clergy In the 1993 edition of the Japan Agency of Cultural Affairs' Shūkyō Nenkan (Year in Religion), the number of Shrine Shinto clergy (shinshoku) registered with the Association of Shinto Shrines (Jinja honchō
14 Shinto Missionaries: Civilizing the People Kyōdōshoku was a short-lived system in the 1860' and 1870's; however, it no doubt had some influence during its day. At the time, the school systems were still largely undeveloped, especially at the p
15 Shrines Confronting Urbanization Shinto took its shape in response to the boons and banes of an agricultural society. As expressed in the Spring Festival(kinensai) and the Eleventh-month Harvest Festival (Niinamesai), rites for abun
16 Shrines and Hawaiians of Japanese descent The relationship between Hawaii and shrines may not be obvious at first, but considering that Hawaii began to admit Japanese immigrants in 1868, it should not be surprising that shrines exist there ev
17 The Ashes of Tokyo University's Department of Shinto Studies Presently, there are no public universities with a department of Shinto Studies or which offer regular courses on the subject. This was not always the case. Prior to the Second World War, Tokyo Imperi
18 The Complexity of the Nihon Shoki It is a well-known fact that the scroll of the Nihon Shoki referred to as the "Age of the Kami" or "Divine Age" (kamiyo) is divided into two parts, the first comprising the "primary account" and the s
19 The Founder who Swallowed the Sun Ancient religions often took heavenly bodies as objects of worship, but there are strikingly many that worship the sun in particular. Shinto also incorporates elements of sun-worship, such as the kami
20 The Ritual Etiquette of Shinto Priests The protocol of a Shinto priest's actions during Shrine rites and rituals is prescribed in great detail. With regard to posture alone, for example, the rules of the Association of Shinto Shrines (jinj