國學院大學
國學院大學デジタルミュージアム

Encyclopedia of Shinto

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  • カテゴリー1:
  • 5. Rites and Festivals
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  • カテゴリー2:
  • Shrine Rituals

Title Text
1 Chūsai One category of shrine rites, referring to ritual conducted on a middle or medium scale. In the Meiji period such rites became specified by law, but since the end of the war, they have been regulated
2 Gyōji sahō Often used to refer to general protocol of shrine rituals, the term in its narrow sense designates the detailed regulations governing their performance. Shrine rites (gyōji) consist of a combination
3 Hōbeisai A rite in which heihaku offerings are presented to the kami by the emperor or the state. There are both annual and occasional versions of hōbeisai. The Jingiryō establishes nineteen annual hōbeisai,
4 Keihitsu A call made by the priest and other festival participants, used when invoking the kami (kōshin), when opening and closing sanctuary doors or during divine processions as part of various rituals and c
5 Kenpeishi Introduced after World War II, kenpeishi are emissaries sent by the Association of Shinto Shrines (Jinja Honchō) to its affiliated shrines to present offerings (heihaku) on behalf of the Association.
6 Kōshin, shōshin Rites carried out with the purpose of invoking a kami to attend a festival conducted on an occasional basis outside a shrine's precincts and then of sending the kami away. Such rituals were necessary
7 Naorai A banquet that accompanies a matsuri. Usually understood as sharing a meal of the offerings made at the festival after its conclusion, the naorai is one of the constituent elements of matsuri. Accord
8 Reisai The annual ‘major festival' (taisai) of a shrine, held on a day related either to the enshrined deity or the origin of the shrine. The term reisai is relatively recent. In ancient times this festival
9 Sanpai sahō The usual way to worship in the presence of the kami (at a shrine) is to bow twice, clap twice, and bow a third time. The majority of shrines follow the guidelines set down by the Association of Shin
10 Shikinensai Rites held in prescribed years. Rites of this type are broadly divided into those held at shrines and those held for the imperial ancestors at the palace. Shikinensai held at the palace are conducted
11 Shinkōsai The characters for ‘shinkō' can also be read ‘miyuki', indicating a rite concerned with journey of the kami out of the sanctuary. The shinkōsai is frequently held as part of the reisai, as stipulated
12 Shubatsu To undergo purification. Shubatsu is a ceremony conducted immediately prior to rituals in order to purify participants, food offerings, and tamagushi of sins and defilement. Although some shrines sti
13 Shōsai One category of shrine rites, grouping together rites conducted on a small scale. Before 1945 these were specified under government regulations, and thereafter by the Association of Shinto Shrines (Jinja honchō
14 Taisai One division of shrine rites, conducted in the form of major festivals. After the Meiji Restoration, these observances became regulated under government ordinance, and since 1945 they have been speci
15 Zassai The category of zassai groups together all the shrine celebrations which are not subject to the Regulations of the Association of Shinto Shrines (Jinja honcho). The term means "miscellaneous festival