國學院大學
國學院大學デジタルミュージアム

Encyclopedia of Shinto

Main Menu:    Foreword    ≫Guide to Usage   ≫ Contributors & Translators   
Links:    Images of Shinto: A Beginner's Pictorial Guide   

詳細表示 (Complete Article)

カテゴリー1 5. Rites and Festivals
カテゴリー2 Introduction
Title
Text This chapter deals with terminology relating to Shintō matsuri (ritual ceremonies and festivals). The etymology of the word matsuri has been interpreted as deriving from the verb matsurau, which means to yield to, serve, or give submission to the might of a kami. To wit, the kami increase their spirit-force and humans enjoy the power of the kami through the visible rituals of matsuri. One of the important constituents of rituals of worship is the presentation of food offerings (shinsen). The central rite of the imperial Daijōsai (The first Festival of Firstfruits-Tasting following enthronement) is the ritual communal meal shared by human and kami, while the ritual of "great food offerings" (ōmike) is likewise the central ceremonial observance at the Grand Shrines of Ise (Ise Jingū). The crucial role that this kind of ritual meal shared between humans and kami, or ritual meals of communion (naorai), plays in Shintō is underlined by the solemnity with which they are carried out within the rites of the imperial household and the Ise Jingū.
     The Japanese people's love of matsuri is well known. The sense of the seasons is well expressed by the festivals held in each of the four; from the New Year's festival (saitansai) held on January 1 to the "seeing out the year" (toshikoshi) festival observed on December 31, the annual cycle is marked by a prodigious number of ritual customs. Japanese participate in the lively festivals of the city and the harvest thanksgiving festivals of the village that have been handed down from ancient times, coming under the mysterious power of the kami and reaffirming the communal spirit. Matsuri have also functioned as a kind of social norm. Matsuri are an important ritual for understanding Shintō and shrine worship. This chapter is broken down into the following sections: Types of Rituals, State Rites, Rites of the Ise Shrine, Shrine Rituals, Individual Shrine Observances (tokushu shinji), Performing Arts, Rituals in Daily Life, and Rituals in Okinawa and Amami.
     The characteristics of ancient matsuri are gradually being uncovered through ongoing archaeological research. In particular, the ritual sites of the Munakata-Okinoshima islands have produced valuable results for understanding the evolution of ritual observance from the fifth to the ninth centuries. It has become possible to infer the content of rituals from archaeological finds thanks to the increased number of excavations in recent years, and hopes are high for the progress of future research. Efforts to isolate the nature of Japanese matsuri through comparisons with festivals in other parts of the world are also continuing to produce results.
     Although Shintō ritual worship was grounded in agricultural society, its systematic organization proceeded hand in hand with the formation and development of the ancient state. The ritual system of the ritsuryō state (a system of government based on Chinese models of penal [ritsu] and civil [ryō] codes) was completed during the reigns of emperors Tenmu and Jitō (ca. late 7th century). The ritsuryō ritual system and the rites and rituals added to it during the Heian period (794-1192) went through a period of decline during the medieval and early modern periods, but it was revived in the Meiji period and has been carried on in modern Shintō ritual. What was desired in this restoration were the ancient ritsuryō rituals and the rites and rituals of the Heian-period as described in extant ritual treatises. These sorts of state rites are described for pre-modern times in the articles dealing with court ritual, and for modern times in the articles dealing with Meiji state ritual. Furthermore, on the matter of state rites separate descriptions will be presented for ancient ritsuryō rituals and for Meiji-era imperial household ritual. The rites of the Ise Shrines likewise have had deep connections with the imperial household since ancient times and they retain a deeply official character. The Regular Shrine Removal (Shikinen sengū) that takes place every twenty years, the annual rituals of Kannamesai and Tsukinamisai, and the unique daily rituals of morning and evening food offerings (higoto asayū ōmikesai) are among the observances to be taken up in articles in the section on the shrines.
     The section on Shrine Rituals discusses terms related to current shrine practice, while the articles in the section on Individual Shrine Observances present a broad overview of rites from around the nation that have been handed down rooted in the history and origins particular to a given shrine. Such unique local rites offer evidence of regional characteristics imbued with local color, and in some cases relate the story of a shrine's founding and origins in ritual form. Traditional culture is being condensed into performances and food offerings, and while the importance thereof has been increasing in recent years the matter is also wrapped up with the issue of who is going to carry on matsuri traditions. The debate over how to preserve matsuri seems certain to grow.
     The section on Rituals in Daily Life presents articles dealing with Shintō observances closely linked to everyday life. It provides a broad overview that extends to the very margins of Shintō, ranging from the first shrine visit of a newborn (hatsumiya mōde) to Shintō funerals (shinsōsai) and the vocational rites that take place throughout the year such as the first pilgrimage of the new year (hatsumōde). The final section deals with rituals in Okinawa and Amami. While they do not directly fall within the province of Shintō matsuri, this is an area of study that quickly attracted the attention of such folklorists as Yanigita Kunio and Orikuchi Shinobu and is instructive for understanding the primal forms and essence of the Shintō cult and rites.
This chapter deals with terminology relating to Shintō matsuri (ritual ceremonies and festivals). The etymology of the word matsuri has been interpreted as deriving from the verb matsurau, which means to yield to, serve, or give submission to the might of a kami. To wit, the kami increase their spirit-force and humans enjoy the power of the kami through the visible rituals of matsuri. One of the important constituents of rituals of worship is the presentation of food offerings (shinsen). The central rite of the imperial Daijōsai (The first Festival of Firstfruits-Tasting following enthronement) is the ritual communal meal shared by human and kami, while the ritual of "great food offerings" (ōmike) is likewise the central ceremonial observance at the Grand Shrines of Ise (Ise Jingū). The crucial role that this kind of ritual meal shared between humans and kami, or ritual meals of communion (naorai), plays in Shintō is underlined by the solemnity with which they are carried out within the rites of the imperial household and the Ise Jingū.
     The Japanese people's love of matsuri is well known. The sense of the seasons is well expressed by the festivals held in each of the four; from the New Year's festival (saitansai) held on January 1 to the "seeing out the year" (toshikoshi) festival observed on December 31, the annual cycle is marked by a prodigious number of ritual customs. Japanese participate in the lively festivals of the city and the harvest thanksgiving festivals of the village that have been handed down from ancient times, coming under the mysterious power of the kami and reaffirming the communal spirit. Matsuri have also functioned as a kind of social norm. Matsuri are an important ritual for understanding Shintō and shrine worship. This chapter is broken down into the following sections: Types of Rituals, State Rites, Rites of the Ise Shrine, Shrine Rituals, Individual Shrine Observances (tokushu shinji), Performing Arts, Rituals in Daily Life, and Rituals in Okinawa and Amami.
     The characteristics of ancient matsuri are gradually being uncovered through ongoing archaeological research. In particular, the ritual sites of the Munakata-Okinoshima islands have produced valuable results for understanding the evolution of ritual observance from the fifth to the ninth centuries. It has become possible to infer the content of rituals from archaeological finds thanks to the increased number of excavations in recent years, and hopes are high for the progress of future research. Efforts to isolate the nature of Japanese matsuri through comparisons with festivals in other parts of the world are also continuing to produce results.
     Although Shintō ritual worship was grounded in agricultural society, its systematic organization proceeded hand in hand with the formation and development of the ancient state. The ritual system of the ritsuryō state (a system of government based on Chinese models of penal [ritsu] and civil [ryō] codes) was completed during the reigns of emperors Tenmu and Jitō (ca. late 7th century). The ritsuryō ritual system and the rites and rituals added to it during the Heian period (794-1192) went through a period of decline during the medieval and early modern periods, but it was revived in the Meiji period and has been carried on in modern Shintō ritual. What was desired in this restoration were the ancient ritsuryō rituals and the rites and rituals of the Heian-period as described in extant ritual treatises. These sorts of state rites are described for pre-modern times in the articles dealing with court ritual, and for modern times in the articles dealing with Meiji state ritual. Furthermore, on the matter of state rites separate descriptions will be presented for ancient ritsuryō rituals and for Meiji-era imperial household ritual. The rites of the Ise Shrines likewise have had deep connections with the imperial household since ancient times and they retain a deeply official character. The Regular Shrine Removal (Shikinen sengū) that takes place every twenty years, the annual rituals of Kannamesai and Tsukinamisai, and the unique daily rituals of morning and evening food offerings (higoto asayū ōmikesai) are among the observances to be taken up in articles in the section on the shrines.
     The section on Shrine Rituals discusses terms related to current shrine practice, while the articles in the section on Individual Shrine Observances present a broad overview of rites from around the nation that have been handed down rooted in the history and origins particular to a given shrine. Such unique local rites offer evidence of regional characteristics imbued with local color, and in some cases relate the story of a shrine's founding and origins in ritual form. Traditional culture is being condensed into performances and food offerings, and while the importance thereof has been increasing in recent years the matter is also wrapped up with the issue of who is going to carry on matsuri traditions. The debate over how to preserve matsuri seems certain to grow.
     The section on Rituals in Daily Life presents articles dealing with Shintō observances closely linked to everyday life. It provides a broad overview that extends to the very margins of Shintō, ranging from the first shrine visit of a newborn (hatsumiya mōde) to Shintō funerals (shinsōsai) and the vocational rites that take place throughout the year such as the first pilgrimage of the new year (hatsumōde). The final section deals with rituals in Okinawa and Amami. While they do not directly fall within the province of Shintō matsuri, this is an area of study that quickly attracted the attention of such folklorists as Yanigita Kunio and Orikuchi Shinobu and is instructive for understanding the primal forms and essence of the Shintō cult and rites.
— Okada Shōji
國學院デジタルミュージアム
國學院大學
國學院大學デジタルミュージアム
指定されたページは存在しません。