國學院大學
國學院大學デジタルミュージアム

Encyclopedia of Shinto

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Title Text
1 Bettō One term for shrine monks (shasō) performing Buddhist rites at shrines and jingūji (shrine-related temples) during the era of shinbutsu shūgō (the amalgamation of Shintō and Buddhism). The term bettō
2 Gūji One rank in the hierarchy of shrine priests (shinshoku). The chief priest among those serving at a particular shrine. At most shrines today, the gūji ordinarily serves as head ritualist, as well as b
3 Hafuri A term for Shinto priests (shinshoku), usually a rank beneath kannushi and negi. The etymology of the term is unclear, but according to Tanigawa Kotosuga's Wakun no shiori, it refers to shaking a gar
4 Hafuribe A type of priestly rank established under the ancient Ritsuryō system. The "hafuri" in hafuribe derives from a quote found in Jōgen's commentary on the Book of Rites (Raiki) reading "one associated w
5 Izumo kokusō The kuni no miyatsuko of the ancient province of Izumo (the eastern portion of present-day Shimane Prefecture). Even after the dissolution of the Ritsuryō system, the term has persisted as a title fo
6 Jinjashishoku A comprehensive term for shrine ritualists of the ancient period. At the top was the kannushi (here meaning the head of a shrine as opposed to the general meaning of a primary ritualist), or a gūji (
7 Kanbe Also read as kantomo and kantomono'o, refers to people involved in rites for the kami. Under the Ritsuryō system, kanbe were low-level appointees to the Jingikan and participated in ritual and miscel
8 Kannushi In present usage, kannushi is a general term for shrine priests (shinshoku). Since ancient times this term has been applied to those who ritually serve kami. It is stated in Nihon shoki that Empress
9 Kengyō One who has general responsibility for the management of a shrine or temple, derived from a Chinese term meaning "to investigate and consider." The term seems to have been in use from the beginning o
10 Kinokuninomiyatsuko The kuni no miyatsuko (a provincial governor with ritual responsibilities) of the ancient Kii Province. As an administrator of ritual, this office endured for a long time after its introduction. The
11 Kuni no miyatsuko An officer of provincial government in the ancient period. Among the surnames for the office Atai is most common, along with Omi, Kimi, or Muraji. Both Kojiki and Nihon shoki date the establishment o
12 Miko A general term for a woman possessing the magico-religious power to receive oracles (takusen) from the kami in a state of spirit possession (kamigakari). Nowadays the term generally refers to a woman
13 Negi One comprehensive term for shrine priests (shinshoku). In the ancient system, it was the position below kannushi. The origin of the word (negu) is related to the idea of comforting the hearts of the
14 Saishu A profession established by the court for the performance of ritual at Ise Jingū (the Grand Shrines of Ise). This position only existed at Ise and was hereditarily filled by the Nakatomi family. In l
15 Shake A family filling the priestly (shinshoku) position at a particular shrine from generation to generation, also called shashika. In ancient times shrines did not usually have professional priests, but
16 Shasō A general term for Buddhist priests who perform Buddhist rites at shrines or jingūji. Other terms are kusō, gusō, and shinsō, but up to the Edo period, shasō was the most prevalent term. Following Bu
17 Shinkan Widely used synonymously with shinshoku. In the broad sense, the term shinkan denotes one kind of shrine priest. In the strict sense, however, shinkan and shinshoku are different. Until the Edo perio
18 Shinshoku Personnel involved in the ritual activities and the maintenance of shrines. Historically, shinshoku was a comprehensive term for kuni no miyatsuko (provincial governor-ritualist), gūji (chief priest)
19 Uji no kami The head of a clan (uji); also called uji no sō and uji no osa, or in ancient times, kono kami. The first document mentioning uji no kami is Nihon shoki, in an entry from the second month of 664 (the