國學院大學
國學院大學デジタルミュージアム

Encyclopedia of Shinto

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  • Modern and Contemporary

Title Text
1 Atsuta Shrine College A training college for Shintō priests run by Atsuta Shrine (Atsuta Jingū), under authorization from the Association of Shintō Shrines (Jinja honchō). The college, when founded in 1950, was originally
2 Dewa Sanzan Priest Training Institute A Jinja Honchō-approved training institute for shrine priests managed by Dewa Sanzan Jinja. It was established in 1962 as a B-rank institution offering a one-year course for trainees (gonseikai katei
3 Fukensha A pre-war shrine rank comprised of prefectural shrines (kensha) and municipal district shrines (fusha). In the modern shrine ranking system established in 1871, shrines were divided into kansha (stat
4 Gōsha Rural District Shrines. A shrine rank instituted in the modern shrine ranking system. The modern shrine ranking system was divided into the two general categories of kansha (state shrines) and shosha
5 Imperial Restoration The overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate and the installation of a system of direct rule by the emperor. The inspiration for an imperial restoration and the movement toward direct imperial rule spread
6 Jingiin The Jingiin (Institute of Divinities) was an organ for the administration of shrine affairs attached to the Home Ministry; it was created according to Imperial Rescript 736 on November 9, 1940. The d
7 Jingū Kenshūsho A training institute for priests (shinshoku yōsei kikan) run by the Grand Shrines of Ise and approved by the Jinja Honchō (Association of Shintō Shrines). The precursor was the regular training cours
8 Jinja Honchō The Association of Shinto Shrines, an umbrella organization that incorporates the vast majority of shrines in Japan. From the Meiji era (1868-1912), shrines were placed under the supervision of gover
9 Jinja gōshi In its broadest sense, the term refers to the process of "merging" whereby multiple shrines become one. More specifically, the term refers to the shrine merger policies carried out by central and loc
10 Jinjakyoku Bureau of Shrines. A bureau set up within the Home Ministry in 1900, it endured until 1940. It was created as part of the institutional reforms of April 26, 1900, when the Home ministry's Bureau for S
11 Kokugakuin University A Shinto university established as part of the Meiji trend that bewailed the sudden inclination toward, and uncritical veneration of Western culture and sought to reaffirm Japan's traditional culture
12 Kyoto Kokugakuin A normal training institute for Shinto priests (see also Shrine Priest Training Institutes) authorized by the Jinja honchō (Association of Shintō Shrines) and operated by the Kyōto koten kōkyūsho Kyō
13 Kōgakkan University A Shinto university established in response to the destruction of antiquities in the midst of the civilization and enlightenment (bunmei kaika) movement of the Meiji period. Its founding principle wa
14 Modern shrine ranking system A system introduced by the Meiji government to rank shrines. After its founding, the Restoration government sought to gain control of all shrines in the land and to that end quickly instituted a shri
15 Mukakusha Unranked shrines. This is a category in the Meiji shrine ranking system of shrines entirely without rank. They do not even possess the rank of sonsha (village shrines). Among all shrines, these had t
16 Problems of religion and government In Article Twenty-eight of the Meiji Constitution, religious freedom was recognized after a fashion, but the argument was that shrines were not religious institutions and shrines therefore held a spe
17 Religious Corporations Law The Religious Corporations Law was enacted on April 3 1951; it followed the Religious Organizations Law (Shūkyō Dantaihō) of 1939 and the Religious Corporations Ordinance (Shūkyō Hōjinrei) of 1945. T
18 Religious Corporations Ordinance An ordinance issued and implemented on December 28 1945 by means of Imperial Rescript 719; it set out rules relating to the creation and registration of religious corporations. It comprised eighteen
19 Religious Organizations Law The first systematized set of laws pertaining to religious groups. Promulgated on April 8 1939 as Law no.77, it was enacted on April 1 of the following year. The law comprised thirty seven articles,
20 Shajikyoku (Bureau for Shrines and Temples) A bureau within the Home Ministry between 1877 and 1900. October 11, 1877 saw the abolition of the Ministry of Religious Education (Kyōbushō), which until then had overseen the administration of Shin