國學院大學
國學院大學デジタルミュージアム

Encyclopedia of Shinto

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  • 3. Institutions and Administrative Practices

Title Text
1 Atsuta Shrine College A training college for Shintō priests run by Atsuta Shrine (Atsuta Jingū), under authorization from the Association of Shintō Shrines (Jinja honchō). The college, when founded in 1950, was originally
2 Bettō One term for shrine monks (shasō) performing Buddhist rites at shrines and jingūji (shrine-related temples) during the era of shinbutsu shūgō (the amalgamation of Shintō and Buddhism). The term bettō
3 Chokusai A ritual performed by order of the emperor and for which a special envoy (chokushi) is sent to a shrine to read a prayer (saimon) before the deity and present heihaku offerings. The term chokusai can
4 Chokushi A messenger who delivered imperial commands. Messengers who were dispatched to shrines on the occasion of either an ordinary or an extraordinary rite were generally called tsukai (messengers), saishi
5 Dewa Sanzan Priest Training Institute A Jinja Honchō-approved training institute for shrine priests managed by Dewa Sanzan Jinja. It was established in 1962 as a B-rank institution offering a one-year course for trainees (gonseikai katei
6 Engishiki Procedures of the Engi Era. Engishiki is a compendium of rules and procedures for implementing ritsu (penal codes), ryō (administrative codes), and kyaku (supplementary laws). It comprised fifty scro
7 Fukensha A pre-war shrine rank comprised of prefectural shrines (kensha) and municipal district shrines (fusha). In the modern shrine ranking system established in 1871, shrines were divided into kansha (stat
8 Gōsha Rural District Shrines. A shrine rank instituted in the modern shrine ranking system. The modern shrine ranking system was divided into the two general categories of kansha (state shrines) and shosha
9 Gūji One rank in the hierarchy of shrine priests (shinshoku). The chief priest among those serving at a particular shrine. At most shrines today, the gūji ordinarily serves as head ritualist, as well as b
10 Hafuri A term for Shinto priests (shinshoku), usually a rank beneath kannushi and negi. The etymology of the term is unclear, but according to Tanigawa Kotosuga's Wakun no shiori, it refers to shaking a gar
11 Hafuribe A type of priestly rank established under the ancient Ritsuryō system. The "hafuri" in hafuribe derives from a quote found in Jōgen's commentary on the Book of Rites (Raiki) reading "one associated w
12 Hasshinden The Hall of Eight Deities. Under the ritsuyō system, this hall was located in the western hall of the Jingikan (Department of Divinities) and it enshrined the eight tutelary deities of the emperor. A
13 Hōbei Offerings of heihaku made to shrines and imperial tombs by order of the emperor. The term also refers to an envoy who bore these offerings, (alternatively called the hōbeishi). The characters can als
14 Hōbeishi The general name for envoys who carry offerings (heihaku) to royal mausolea and kami at the command of the emperor. There are various types of envoy including the general category of hōbeishi, reihei
15 Ichinomiya / Sōja Ichinomiya, (literally first shrine) is a shrine occupying the highest rank among the shrines of a province. A sōja is the shrine established in each province which collectively enshrines all of the
16 Imperial Restoration The overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate and the installation of a system of direct rule by the emperor. The inspiration for an imperial restoration and the movement toward direct imperial rule spread
17 Introduction: Institutions and Administrative Practices This section offers explanations of terminology relating to Shintō shrine systems, institutions and administration. The main focus falls on shrine systems, their state foundations and other closely r
18 Izumo kokusō The kuni no miyatsuko of the ancient province of Izumo (the eastern portion of present-day Shimane Prefecture). Even after the dissolution of the Ritsuryō system, the term has persisted as a title fo
19 Jingi shizoku Hereditary priestly clans such as the Nakatomi, the Inbe, the Urabe and the Sarume who served the royal court from ancient times. Except for the Urabe, the members of these clans were all said to be
20 Jingiin The Jingiin (Institute of Divinities) was an organ for the administration of shrine affairs attached to the Home Ministry; it was created according to Imperial Rescript 736 on November 9, 1940. The d